Most development sites do not contain rare / protected species of plants, although if the proposed development site is in an area known to harbour such species, or is a habitat of principal importance (BAP Habitat), it might require a more in depth botanical survey to be undertaken.

The depth of the surveys is often determined by the County Ecologist and or Natural England. It is becoming more frequent for LPA ecologists to request botany surveys of semi-improved grassland. This can prove significant as depending on the evaluation, it is possible that ‘compensation’ for loss of habitat will be requested 

Whatever level of survey you might require, please discuss it with us.

The following lists are not intended to be definitive. They are occasionally updated and it is recommended that you check for any updates rather than rely on the following.

There is probably not a single ecologist who would be able to recognises / identify all of the species in the following lists. Most would struggle to identify more than a handful.

Schedule 8 – Protected Plants

The Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981

The Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 (WCA) is the principal legislation dealing with non-native species. The WCA has been amended in relation to England and Wales by various pieces of legislation, including the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 (Variation of Schedule 9) (England and Wales) Order 2010, the Natural Environment and Rural Communities Act 2006 and the Countryside and Rights of Way Act 2000.

Vascular Plants

Ajuga chamaepitys


Alisma gramineum

Ribbon-leaved Water-plantain

Allium sphaerocephalon

Round-headed Leek

Althaea hirsuta

Rough Marsh-mallow

Alyssum alyssoides

Small Alison

Apium repens

Creeping Marshwort

Arabis alpina

Alpine Rock-cress

Arabis scabra

Bristol Rock-cress

Arenaria norvegica

Norwegian Sandwort

Artemisia campestris

Field Wormwood

Atriplex pedunculata

Stalked Orache

Bupleurum baldense

Small Hare’s-ear

Bupleurum falcatum

Sickle-leaved Hare’s-ear

Carex depauperata

Starved Wood-sedge

Centaurium tenuiflorum

Slender Centaury

Cephalanthera rubra

Red Helleborine

Chenopodium vulvaria

Stinking Goosefoot

Cicerbita alpina

Alpine Sow-thistle

Clinopodium menthifolium

Wood Calamint

Coincya wrightii

Lundy Cabbage

Corrigiola litoralis


Cotoneaster cambricus

Wild Cotoneaster

Crassula aquatica


Crepis foetida

Stinking Hawk’s-beard

Cynoglossum germanicum

Green Hound’s-tongue

Cyperus fuscus

Brown Galingale

Cypripedium calceolus


Cystopteris dickieana

Dickie’s Bladder-fern

Dactylorhiza lapponica

Lapland Marsh-orchid

Damasonium alisma


Dianthus armeria

Deptford Pink

Dianthus gratianopolitanus

Cheddar Pink

Diapensia lapponica


Eleocharis parvula

Dwarf Spike-rush

Epipactis youngiana

Young’s Helleborine

Epipogium aphyllum

Ghost Orchid

Equisetum ramosissimum

Branched Horsetail

Erigeron borealis

Alpine Fleabane

Eriophorum gracile

Slender Cottongrass

Eryngium campestre

Field Eryngo

Filago lutescens

Red-tipped Cudweed

Filago pyramidata

Broad-leaved Cudweed

Fumaria reuteri

Martin’s Ramping-fumitory

Gagea bohemica

Early Star-of-Bethlehem

Gentiana nivalis

Alpine Gentian

Gentiana verna

Spring Gentian

Gentianella anglica

Early Gentian

Gentianella ciliata

Fringed Gentian

Gentianella uliginosa

Dune Gentian

Gladiolus illyricus

Wild Gladiolus

Gnaphalium luteoalbum

Jersey Cudweed

Hieracium attenuatifolium

Weak-leaved Hawkweed

Hieracium northroense

Northroe Hawkweed

Hieracium zetlandicum

Shetland Hawkweed

Himantoglossum hircinum

Lizard Orchid

Homogyne alpina

Purple Colt’s-foot

Hyacinthoides non-scripta


Lactuca saligna

Least Lettuce

Leersia oryzoides


Limosella australis

Welsh Mudwort

Liparis loeselii

Fen Orchid

Lloydia serotina

Snowdon Lily

Luronium natans

Floating Water-plantain

Lychnis alpina

Alpine Catchfly

Lythrum hyssopifolium


Melampyrum arvense

Field Cow-wheat

Mentha pulegium


Minuartia stricta

Teesdale Sandwort

Najas flexilis

Slender Naiad

Najas marina

Holly-leaved Naiad

Ononis reclinata

Small Restharrow

Ophioglossum lusitanicum

Least Adder’s-tongue

Ophrys fuciflora

Late Spider-orchid

Ophrys sphegodes

Early Spider-orchid

Orchis militaris

Military Orchid

Orchis simia

Monkey Orchid

Orobanche artemisiae-campestris

Oxtongue Broomrape

Orobanche caryophyllacea

Bedstraw Boomrape

Orobanche reticulata

Thistle Broomrape

Petroraghia nanteuilii

Childing Pink

Phyllodoce caerulea

Blue Heath

Phyteuma spicatum

Spiked Rampion

Polygonatum verticillatum

Whorled Solomon’s-seal

Polygonum maritimum

Sea Knotgrass

Potentilla rupestris

Rock Cinquefoil

Pulicaria vulgaris

Small Fleabane

Pyrus cordata

Plymouth Pear

Ranunculus ophioglossifolius

Adder’s-tongue Spearwort

Rhinanthus angustifolius

Greater Yellow-rattle

Romulea columnae

Sand Crocus

Rumex rupestris

Shore Dock

Salvia pratensis

Meadow Clary

Saxifraga cernua

Drooping Saxifrage

Saxifraga cespitosa

Tufted Saxifrage

Saxifraga hirculus

Yellow Marsh-saxifrage

Schoenoplectus triqueter

Triangular Club-rush

Scleranthus perennis

Perennial Knawel

Scorzonera humilis


Selinum carvifolia

Cambridge Milk-parsley

Senecio paludosus

Fen Ragwort

Stachys alpina

Limestone Woundwort

Tephroseris integrifolia ssp. maritima

South Stack Fleawort

Teucrium scordium

Water Germander

Thlaspi perfoliatum

Perfoliate Penny-cress

Trichomanes speciosum

Killarney Fern

Veronica spicata

Spiked Speedwell

Veronica triphyllos

Fingered Speedwell

Viola persicifolia

Fen Violet

Woodsia alpina

Alpine Woodsia

Woodsia ilvensis

Oblong Woodsia




Alectoria ochroleuca

Alpine Sulphur-tresses

Acaulon triquetrum

Triangular Pygmy-moss

Bryoria furcellata

Forked Hair-lichen

Anomodon longifolius

Long-leaved Anomodon

Buellia asterella

Starry Breck-lichen

Bartramia stricta

Rigid Apple-moss

Caloplaca luteoalba

Orange-fruited Elm-lichen

Bryum mamillatum

Dune Thread-moss

Caloplaca nivalis

Snow Caloplaca

Bryum neodamense

Long-leaved Thread-moss

Catapyrenium psoromoides

Tree Catapyrenium

Bryum schleicheri

Schleicher’s Thread-moss

Catillaria laureri

Laurer’s Catillaria

Buxbaumia viridis

Green Shield-moss

Catolechia wahlenbergii

Goblin Lights

Cryphaea lamyana

Multi-fruited River-moss

Cladonia convoluta

Convoluted Cladonia

Cyclodictyon laetevirens

Bright-green Cave-moss

Caldonia stricta

Upright Mountain-cladonia

Desmatodon cernuus

Flamingo Moss

Collema dichotomum

River Jelly-lichen

Didymodon cordatus

Cordate Beard-moss

Enterographa elaborata

New Forest Beech-lichen

Didymodon glaucus

Glaucous Beard-moss

Gyalecta ulmi

Elm Gyalecta

Ditrichum cornubicum

Cornish Path-moss

Heterodermia leucomelos

Ciliate Strap-lichen

Grimmia unicolor

Blunt-leaved Grimmia

Heterodermia propagulifera

Coralloid Rosette-lichen

Hamatocaulis (Drepanocladus) vernicosus

Slender Green Feather-moss

Lecanactis hemisphaerica

Churchyard Lecanactis

Hygrohypnum polare

Polar Feather-moss

Lecanora achariana

Tarn Lecanora

Hypnum vaucheri

Vaucher’s Feather-moss

Lecidea inops

Copper Lecidea

Micromitrium tenerum

Millimetre Moss

Nephroma arcticum

Arctic Kidney-lichen

Mielichhofieria mielichhoferi

Alpine Copper-moss

Pannaria ignobilis

Caledonian Pannaria

Orthotrichum obtusifolium

Blunt-leaved Bristle-moss

Parmelia minarum

New Forest Parmelia

Plagiothecium piliferum

Hair Silk-moss

Parmentaria chilensis

Oil-stain Parmentaria

Rhynchostegium rotundifolium

Round-leaved Feather-moss

Peltigera lepidophora

Ear-lobed Dog-lichen

Saelania glaucescens

Blue Dew-moss

Pertusaria bryontha

Alpine Moss-pertusaria

Scorpidium turgescens

Large Yellow Feather-moss

Physcia tribacioides

Southern Grey Physcia

Sphagnum balticum

Baltic Bog-moss

Psedocyphellaria lacerata

Ragged Pseudocyphellaria

Thamnobryum angustifolium

Derbyshire Feather-moss

Psora rubiformis

Rusty Alpine Psora

Zygodon forsteri

Knothole Moss

Solenopsora liparina

Serpentine Solenopsora

Zygodon gracilis

Nowell’s Limestone-moss

Squamarina lentigera

Scaly Breck-lichen



Teloschistes flavicans

Golden Hair-lichen




In addition to Protected Plants, there are also plants which cause concern if they are present – You have probably heard of Japanese knotweed and Giant hogweed, but there are many more. 


Section 14(1) of the WCA makes it illegal to release or allow to escape into the wild any animal which is not ordinarily resident in Great Britain and is not a regular visitor to Great Britain in a wild state, or is listed in Schedule 9 to the Act. It is also illegal to plant or otherwise cause to grow in the wild any plant listed in Schedule 9 to the Act. The Schedule 9 list of animal and plant species has been amended by the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 (Variation of Schedule 9) (England and Wales) Order 2010. Offences under section 14 carry a maximum penalty of a £5,000 fine and/or 6 months imprisonment on summary conviction (i.e. at Magistrates’ Court) and an unlimited fine (i.e. whatever the court feels to be commensurate with the offence) and/or 2 years imprisonment on indictment (i.e. at Crown Court). Guidance on Section 14 of the WCA gives further information. 


The following plants were added to Schedule 9 by The Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 (Variation of Schedule 9) (England and Wales) Order 2010:

Common name

Scientific name

Alexanders, Perfoliate

Smyrnium perfoliatum

Algae, Red

Grateloupia luxurians

Archangel, Variegated Yellow (Garden)

Lamiastrum galeobdolon subsp. argentatum

Azalea, Yellow

Rhododendron luteum

Balsam, Himalayan

Impatiens glandulifera


Cotoneaster horizontalis

Cotoneaster, Entire-leaved

Cotoneaster integrifolius

Cotoneaster, Himalayan

Cotoneaster simonsii

Cotoneaster, Hollyberry

Cotoneaster bullatus

Cotoneaster, Small-leaved

Cotoneaster microphyllus

Creeper, False Virginia

Parthenocissus inserta

Creeper, Virginia

Parthenocissus quinquefolia

Dewplant, Purple

Disphyma crassifolium

Fanwort (otherwise known as Carolina Water-Shield)

Cabomba caroliniana

Fern, Water

Azolla filiculoides

Fig, Hottentot

Carpobrotus edulis

Garlic, Three-cornered

Allium triquetrum

Hyacinth, Water

Eichhornia crassipes

Knotweed, Giant

Fallopia sachalinensis

Knotweed, Hybrid

Fallopia japonica x Fallopia sachalinensis

Knotweed, Japanese

Fallopia japonica

Leek, Few-flowered

Allium paradoxum

Lettuce, Water

Pistia stratiotes


Crocosmia x crocosmiiflora

Parrot’s Feather

Myriophyllum aquaticum

Pennywort, Floating

Hydrocotyle ranunculoides

Potato, Duck

Sagittaria latifolia

Primrose, Floating Water

Ludwigia peploides

Primrose, Water

Ludwigia grandiflora

Primrose, Water

Ludwigia uruguayensis


Rhododendron ponticum


Rhododendron ponticum x Rhododendron maximum

Rhubarb, Giant

Gunnera tinctoria

Rose, Japanese

Rosa rugosa

Salvinia, Giant

Salvinia molesta

Seafingers, Green

Codium fragile

Stonecrop, Australian Swamp (otherwise known as New Zealand Pygmyweed)

Crassula helmsii

Waterweed, Curly

Lagarosiphon major


All species of the genus Elodea.


Please contact us for a site specific quotation –

Please call us on 0800 888 6846 / 07736 458609

Natural England Standing Advice for Planning Authorities –

Plants: surveys and mitigation for development projects –